Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD) encompasses a wide range of heart defects, including structural abnormalities, defects in heart valves, or malformations of the blood vessels. The severity and complexity of these conditions can vary greatly, ranging from simple defects that may not require treatment to complex defects that necessitate ongoing medical management or interventions. These conditions arise due to abnormal development or function of the heart during fetal growth. With advancements in medical care and surgical interventions, more children with congenital heart disease are now surviving into adulthood, leading to an increasing population of adults living with these conditions. Proper medical care, lifestyle modifications, and adherence to treatment plans have made many adults with congenital heart disease can lead fulfilling lives. 

ACHD Complications in Adults

Depending on the complexity and severity of the heart defect, adults with CHD may experience a range of physical health challenges. These can include reduced exercise tolerance, shortness of breath, fatigue, palpitations, and cyanosis (bluish skin color). Routine check-ups and diagnostic tests, like echocardiograms and stress tests, are essential to evaluate heart function and determine the need for any interventions or surgeries.

Living with a chronic health condition can have psychological and emotional effects on adults with CHD. Some adults with CHD may need to make lifestyle adjustments to accommodate their heart condition. Depending on the severity of the heart defect and associated health issues, adults with CHD might even face challenges related to employment opportunities and obtaining health insurance coverage. Pre-existing conditions can sometimes affect insurance rates or eligibility.

Moreover, Family planning considerations for people with CHD must be carefully considered. Certain heart disorders might have an impact on pregnancy and labor, demanding specialized medical treatment. Consultation with an adult congenital heart disease specialist is essential for controlling pregnancy risks and making educated decisions.

Risk of Associated Conditions

The presence of a congenital heart defect can affect the overall cardiovascular system and may increase the risk of certain conditions. Some cardiovascular diseases that individuals with ACHD may be more susceptible to are elaborated below.

Infective Endocarditis

ACHD can create structural abnormalities in the heart, such as valve defects or surgically corrected abnormalities, which can increase the risk of bacterial infections on the inner lining of the heart, known as endocarditis. These infections can be life-threatening and necessitate prompt medical intervention.


Many ACHD patients are at an increased risk of developing abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) due to scar tissue from previous surgeries or the underlying heart defect itself. Arrhythmias can cause palpitations, dizziness, fainting, or even life-threatening events.

Pulmonary Hypertension

Certain congenital heart defects can lead to increased pressure in the blood vessels supplying the lungs, a condition known as pulmonary hypertension. This elevated pressure can strain the heart and lungs, leading to further complications if left untreated.

Heart Failure

The structural abnormalities present in ACHD can sometimes lead to heart failure, where the heart cannot pump blood effectively to meet the body’s demands. This condition may develop gradually over time due to the stress placed on the heart.

Atherosclerosis and Coronary Artery Disease

While not directly caused by ACHD, individuals with congenital heart defects can still be susceptible to atherosclerosis, a condition characterized by the buildup of fatty deposits in the arteries, potentially leading to coronary artery disease. This condition can further strain the already compromised heart.


ACHD patients may have an increased risk of stroke due to certain heart defects that promote the formation of blood clots or due to an increased likelihood of developing arrhythmias, which can possibly cause clot formation in the heart.

Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)

Some individuals with ACHD may experience reduced blood flow to the limbs due to peripheral artery disease. This condition can lead to pain, cramping, and difficulty walking or performing daily activities.

ACHD and Pregnancy

Before considering pregnancy, women with ACHD should undergo a thorough evaluation by a cardiologist specialized in adult congenital heart disease. This assessment aims to determine the risks involved, assess the severity of the condition, and identify any potential complications during pregnancy. Counseling becomes essential for women with ACHD, as they need to receive comprehensive information about the risks associated with pregnancy. In some cases, due to the high risks involved, women with ACHD may be advised against pregnancy, leading them to explore alternative options like adoption or surrogacy. Family planning and contraception methods are discussed to ensure the best possible outcomes for both the mother and the baby.

Pregnant women with ACHD require specialized multidisciplinary care involving a team of healthcare professionals. This team typically includes obstetricians, cardiologists, and anesthesiologists who collaborate to closely monitor and manage the pregnancy. Medications are carefully evaluated, and adjustments may be necessary to mitigate potential risks to the developing fetus. Monitoring during pregnancy involves more frequent prenatal visits, additional cardiac evaluations, and echocardiograms to assess heart function and detect any changes or complications. Fetal monitoring is also conducted to ensure the well-being of the baby.

Delivery planning considers the mother’s cardiac status and obstetric factors to determine the appropriate mode of delivery. Vaginal delivery is generally preferred if there are no significant concerns, but in certain cases, a cesarean section may be recommended to minimize stress on the heart. Close monitoring continues during the postpartum period, as there is still an increased risk of complications.

Physical Exercise After ACHD Diagnosis

For individuals with mild to moderate ACHD, engaging in regular aerobic activities like walking, swimming, or cycling is generally encouraged. The key lies in maintaining an appropriate intensity level and gradually progressing over time. It is essential to develop a keen sense of self-awareness, avoiding excessive strain or pushing beyond personal limits. Keeping a tab on the heart rate during exercise, either manually or through the assistance of a heart rate monitor, can offer valuable insights and help ensure that the exercise remains within safe boundaries.

In cases of more complex ACHD or when significant associated complications are present, it may be necessary to observe specific restrictions or exercise with caution. Activities involving high-intensity or contact sports, which carry a heightened risk of injury or place excessive strain on the heart, might need to be avoided. By tailoring recommendations to the individual’s condition and potential risks, the cardiologist can offer clearer guidance.